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What are some good sources for learning different Python libraries?
There are numerous sources to learn different libraries of of the times you can always find some libraries in Python to support your needs. Here are some of the libraries I have worked with along with sources to learn it. For making GUIs Making GUI in Python is extremely easy and there are many libraries to support your task such as Tkinter wxPython PyQt4. Tkinter It is really simple to learn and can have a window up and running in just five lines of it has some drawbacks which can be the default widgets available are old so your app will look alienated on your platform. It can be handled by using ttk with Tkinter. Second it doesn support multi threading directly. You will have to use mttkinter wrapper for using different sources to learn it are 1 2 Tkinter gui application development hotshot by Bhaskar Chaudhary. you can find the pdf on the net. It has ten amazing real world GUI application projects. 2 wxPython It is little harder to learn than Tkinter. It widgets inherit properties of the platform so your app won look alienated on the platform. 1 wxPython in Action by NOEL RAPPIN & ROBIN DUNN 2 PyQt4 It is by far the best library to build GUI in Python. It can be relatively harder to learn but itll be worth it. It supports multi threading and it widgets also inherits properties of the platform. It give user a lot of control to style the widgets by using CSS like stylesheets. 1 PyQt Tutorial s 2 Rapid GUI Programming with Python and Qt The Definitive Ge to PyQt Programming by Mark Summerfield. 2 Web Scraping You can find numerous libraries to extracting data form web. urilib2 for making requests Beautifulsoup for parsing html pages Selenium with PhantomJS for handling cookies JavaScript headers and everything you need with ease. For all the above libraries 1 Web Scraping with Python by Ryan Mitchell. It is a must read book. It teaches to use all the libraries mentioned above and so much more. You will learn many interesting things in here like Web Scraping Web crawling handling JavaScript cookies processing and recognizing images in CAPTCHAs reading different documents saving data. 2 Machine Learning For Machine learning the best library is Scikit-learn. You can find almost all the classical machine learning algorithms and tools implemented in are some of the good sources to learn machine learning with Python. Intro to Machine Learning Course | Udacity s It is best intro course you can find for machine learning. It teaches you most of the machine learning concepts along with coding it in Python. 1 Gavin Hackeling Kindle Store s It is a good read book for machine learning. It teaches concepts along with basic maths and coding in Python. 1 Data Science It involves a lot of other tasks like data cleaningdata visualizationfeature engineeringmachine learn modules are numpyscipypandasmatplotlib. Following are some of good resources. 1 Minutes to pandas s 1 s s 1 s s 1 s s 1 There are some of really good articles on Analytics Community | Analytics Discussions | Big Data Discussion s for data science and machine learning. Here are some of them Python Training | Python For Data Science | Learn Python s 1 A Complete Tutorial to Learn Data Science with Python from Scratch s 1 s s 1 s s 1 s s 1 Deep learning Most used library for deep learning are Theano Keras PytorchTensorflow. I have mostly worked with Tensorflow so I will providing resources for that only. s s 1 s s 1 There is Youtube channel called Hvass Laboratories Hvass Laboratories s . It has a very good series of tutorials on Tensorflow. 1 s s 1 That it for now I will keep adding more. Happy coding!
What are the main tools that I should use during a CTF contest in all categories?
Tools used for solving CTF challenges italic Attacks Tools used for performing various kinds of attacks italic Bettercap s - Framework to perform MITM (Man in the Middle) attacks. Layer 2 attacks s - Attack various protocols on layer 2 Crypto Tools used for solving Crypto challenges italic FeatherDuster s - An automated modular cryptanalysis tool PkCrack s~conrad - A tool for Breaking PkZip-encryption RSATool s - Generate private key with knowledge of p and q XORTool s - A tool to analyze multi-byte xor cipher Bruteforcers Tools used for various kind of bruteforcing (passwords etc.) italic Hashcat s - Password Cracker John The Jumbo s - Community enhanced version of John the Ripper John The Ripper - Password Cracker Ophcrack - Windows password cracker based on rainbow tables. Exploits Tools used for solving Exploits challenges italic DLLInjector s - Inject dlls in processes libformatstr s - Simplify format string exploitation. Metasploit - Penetration testing software Pwntools s - CTF Framework for writing exploits Qira s - QEMU Interactive Runtime Analyser ROP Gadget s - Framework for ROP exploitation Vlt s - Security CTF Toolkit Forensics Tools used for solving Forensics challenges italic Aircrack-Ng - Crack WEP and WPA-PSK keys apt-get install aircrack-ng code Audacity - Analyze sound files (mp3 m4a whatever) apt-get install audacity code Bkhive and Samdump2 - Dump SYSTEM and SAM files apt-get install samdump2 bkhive code CFF Explorer - PE Editor Creddump s - Dump windows credentials DVCS Ripper s - Rips web accessible (distributed) version control systems Exif Tool ~phil - Read write and edit file metadata Extundelete - Used for recovering lost data from mountable s. Boomerang s - Dpile x86 binaries to C ctf_import s 3 run basic functions from stripped binaries cross platform GDB s - The GNU project debugger GEF s - GDB plugin Hopper - Reverse engineering tool (disassembler) for OSX and Linux IDA Pro s - Most used Reversing software Jadx s - Dpile Android files Java Dpilers - An online dpiler for Java and Android APKs Krakatau s - Java dpiler and disassembler PEDA s - GDB plugin (only python2.7) Plasma s - An interactive disassembler for x86 which can generate ed pseudo-code with colored syntax. Pwndbg s - A GDB plugin that provides a suite of utilities to hack around GDB easily. radare2 s - A portable reversing framework Upyle s - Dpile Python 2.7 binaries (.pyc) WinDbg - Windows debugger distributed by Microsoft Z3 s - a theorem prover from Microsoft Research JavaScript Deobfustcators italic Detox - A Javascript malware analysis tool Revelo - Analyze obfuscated Javascript code SWF Analyzers italic RABCDAsm s - Collection of utilities including an ActionScript 3 assembler Swftools - Collection of utilities to work with SWF files Xxxswf s - A Python script for analyzing Flash files. Services Various kind of useful services available around the internet italic CSWSH - Cross-Site WebSocket Hijacking Tester Request Bin - Lets you inspect requests to a particular Steganography Tools used for solving Steganography challenges italic Convert b formats and apply filters Exif - Shows EXIF information in JPEG files Exiftool s - Read and write meta information in files Exiv2 - Image metadata manipulation tool ImageMagick Outguess s - Universal steganographic tool Pngtools - For various analysis related to PNGs apt-get install pngtools code SmartDeblur s - Used to deblur and fix defocused Steghide - Hide data in various kind of s Web Tools used for solving Web challenges italic Commix s - Automated All-in-One OS Command Injection and Exploitation Tool. Hackbar s - Firefox addon for easy web exploitation OWASP ZAP s - Intercepting proxy to replay debug and fuzz HTTP requests and responses Postman s - Add on for chrome for debugging network requests SQLMap s - Automatic SQL injection and database takeover tooli W3af s - Web Application Attack and Audit Framework. XSSer - Automated XSS testor
What is a web application scanner?
In Simple words - Web application scanning also referred to as web application vulnerability scanning or web application security s scanning crawls a website for vulnerabilities within web applications. Scanning software is called web application scanners or vulnerability scanners. After analyzing all the discoverable web pages and files the scanner builds a software structure of the entire website. The web application scanner does not have access to the source code; instead of analyzing the code vulnerability scanners perform simulated attacks against an application and analyze the results. 217 Application Security Statistics Report READ REPORT s Web application scanning can be considered a key part of Dynamic Application Security Testing (DAST) s . It tests the application later in the development lifecycle and after release in runtime. Web application testing or scanning is a foundational part of DevSecOps s . In depth details - In the past many popular websites have been hacked. Hackers are now active and always try to hack websites and leak data. This is why security testing of web applications is very important. And herees the role of web application security scanners. Web Application Security Scanner is a software program which performs automatic black box testing on a web application and identifies security vulnerabilities. Scanners do not access the source code they only perform functional testing and try to find security vulnerabilities. Various paid and free web application vulnerability scanners are available. In this post we are listing the best free open source web application vulnerability scanners. I am adding the tools in random order. So please do not think it is a ranking of tools. I am only adding open source tools which can be used to find security vulnerabilities in web applications. I am not adding tools to find server vulnerabilities. And do not confuse with free tools and open source tools. Because there are various other tools available for free but they do not provide source code to other developers. Open source tools are those which offer source codes to developers so that developers can modify the tool or help in further development. These are the best open source web application penetration testing tools 1. Grabber Grabber is a nice web application scanner which can detect many security vulnerabilities in web applications. It performs scans and tells where the vulnerability exists. It can detect the following vulnerabilities Cross site scripting SQL injection Ajax testing File inclusion JS source code analyzer Backup file check It is not fast aspared to other security scanners but it is simple and portable. This should be used only to test small web applications because it takes too much time to scan large applications. This tool does not offer any GUI interface. It also cannot create any PDF report. This tool was designed to be simple and for personal use. You can try this tool just for personal use. If you are thinking of it for professional use I will never rmend it. This tool was developed in Python. And an executable version is also available if you want. Source code is available so you can modify it according your needs. The main script is which once executed calls other modules like or others. Download it here Grabber! Like a Petit Pimouss' Source code on Github neuroo s 2. Vega Vega is another free open source web vulnerability scanner and testing platform. With this tool you can perform security testing of a web application. This tool is written in Java and offers a GUI based environment. It is available for OS X Linux and Windows. It can be used to find SQL injection header injection directory listing shell injection cross site scripting file inclusion and other web application vulnerabilities. This tool can also be extended using a powerful API written in JavaScript. While working with the tool it lets you set a few preferences like total number of path descendants number of child paths of a node depth and maximum number of request per second. You can use Vega Scanner Vega Proxy Proxy Scanner and also Scanner with credentials. If you need help you can find resources in the documentation section Documentation Documentation s Download Vega Vega Vulnerability Scanner s 3. Zed Attack Proxy Zed Attack Proxy is also known as ZAP. This tool is open source and is developed by AWASP. It is available for Windows Unix and Macintosh platforms. I personally like this tool. It can be used to find a wide range of vulnerabilities in web applications. The tool is very simple and easy to use. Even if you are new to penetration testing you can easily use this tool to start learning penetration testing of web applications. These are the key functionalities of ZAP Intercepting Proxy Automatic Scanner Traditional but powerful spiders Fuzzer Web Socket Support Plug-n-hack support Authentication support REST based API Dynamic SSL certificates Smartcard and Client Digital Certificates support You can either use this tool as a scanner by inputting the URL to perform scanning or you can use this tool as an intercepting proxy to manually perform tests on specific pages. Download ZAP zaproxy s 4. Wapiti Wapiti is also a nice web vulnerability scanner which lets you audit the security of your web applications. It performs black-box testing by scanning web pages and injecting data. It tries to inject payloads and see if a script is vulnerable. It supports both GET and POSTHTTP attacks and detects multiple vulnerabilities. It can detect following vulnerabilities File Disclosure File inclusion Cross Site Scripting (XSS) Command execution detection CRLF Injection SEL Injection and Xpath Injection Weak .htaccess configuration Backup files disclosure and many other Wapiti is amand-line application. So it may not be easy for beginners. But for experts it will perform well. For using this tool you need to learn lots ofmands which can be found in official documentation. Download Wapiti with source code a Free and Open-Source web-application vulnerability scanner in Python for Windows Linux BSD OSX 5. W3af W3af is a popular web application attack and audit framework. This framework aims to provide a better web application penetration testing platform. It is developed using Python. By using this tool you will be able to identify more than 2 kinds of web application vulnerabilities including SQL injection Cross-Site Scripting and many others. Ites with a graphical and console interface. You can use it easily by using its easy to understand interface. If you are using it with Graphical Interface I do not think that you are going to face any problem with the tool. You only need to select the options and then start the scanner. If a website needs authentication you can also use authentication modules to scan the session-protected pages. We have already covered this tool in detail in our previous W3af walkthrough series. You can read those articles to know more about this tool. You can access source code at the Github repository andresriancho s Download it from the official website Open Source Web Application Security Scanner 6. WebScarab WebScarab is a Java-based security framework for analyzing web applications using HTTP or HTTPS protocol. With available plugins you can extend the functionality of the tool. This tool works as an intercepting proxy. So you can review the request and responseing to your browser and going to thw server. You can also modify the request or response before they are received by server or browser. If you are a beginner this tool is not for you. This tool was designed for those who have a good understanding of HTTP protocol and can write codes. Webscarab provides many features which helps penetration testers work closely on a web application and find security vulnerabilities. It has a spider which can automatically find new URLs of the target website. It can easily extract scripts and HTML of the page. Proxy observes the traffic between server and your browser and you can take control of the request and response by using available plugins. Available modules can easily detect mostmon vulnerabilities like SQL injection XSS< CRLF and many other vulnerabilities. Source code of the tool is available on Github OWASP s Download WebScarab here CategoryOWASP WebScarab Project s 7. Skipfish Skipfish is also a nice web application security tool. It crawls the website and then check each pages for various security threats and at the end prepares the final report. This tool was written in C. It is highly optimized for HTTP handling and utilizing minimum CPU. It claims that it can easily handle 2 requests per second without adding a load on CPU. It use a heuristics approach while crawling and testing web pages. This tool also claims to offer high quality and less positives. This tool is available for Linux FreeBSD MacOS X and Windows. Download Skipfish or code from GOogle Codes Long-term storage for Google Code Project Hosting. 8. Ratproxy Ratproxy is also an open source web application security audit tool which can be used to find security vulnerabilities in web applications. It is supports Linux FreeBSD MacOS X and Windows (Cygwin) environments. This tool is designed to ovee the problems users usually face while using other proxy tools for security audits. It is capable of distinguishing between CSS stylesheets and JavaScript codes. It also supports SSL man in the middle attack which means you can also see data passing through SSL. You can read more about this tool here Long-term storage for Google Code Project Hosting. Download Long-term storage for Google Code Project Hosting. 9. SQLMap SQLMap is another popular open source penetration testing tool. It automates the process of finding and exploiting SQL injection vulnerability in a website database. It has a powerful detection engine and many useful features. So a penetration tester can easily perform SQL injection check on a website. It supports range of database servers including MySQL Oracle PostgreSQL Microsoft SQL Server Microsoft Access IBM DB2 SQLite Firebird Sybase and SAP MaxDB. It offers full support to 6 kinds of SQL injection techniques time-based blind boolean-based blind error-based UNION query stacked queries and out-of-band. Access the source code on Github repository sqlmapproject s Download SQLMap here sqlmapproject s 1. Wfuzz Wfuzz is another freely available open source tool for web application penetration testing. It can be used to brute force GET and POST parameters for testing against various kinds of injections like SQL XSS LDAP and many others. It also supports cookie fuzzing multi-threading SOCK Proxy Authentication parameters brute forcing multiple proxy and many other things. You can read more about the features of the tool here xmendez This tool does not offer a GUI interface so you will have to work onmand line interface. Download Wfuzz from Google Code xmendez 11. Grendel-Scan Grendel-Scan is another nice open source web application security tool. This is an automatic tool for finding security vulnerabilities in web applications. Many features are also available for manual penetration testing. This tool is available for Windows Linux and Macintosh. This tool was developed in Java. Download the tool and source code Grendel-Scan 12. Watcher Watcher is a passive web security scanner. It does not attack with loads of requests or crawl the target website. It is not a separate tool but is an add-on of Fiddler. So you need to first install Fiddler and then install Watcher to use it. It quietly analyzes the request and response from the user-interaction and then makes a report on the application. As it is a passive scanner it will not affect the website hosting or cloud infrastructure. Download watcher and its source code CodePlex Archive 13. X5S X5s is also a Fiddler add-on which aims to provide a way to find cross-site scripting vulnerabilities. This is not an automatic tool. So you need to understand how encoding issues can lead to XSS. You need to manually find the injection point and then check where XSS can be in the application. We have covered the X5S in a previous post. So you can refer to that article to read more about X5S and XSS. Download X5S and source code from codeplex CodePlex Archive You can also refer to this official ge to know how to use X5S CodePlex Archive 14. Arachni Arachni is an open source tool developed for providing a penetration testing environment. This tool can detect various web application security vulnerabilities. It can detect various vulnerabilities like SQL Injection XSS Local File inclusion remote file inclusion unvalidated redirect and many others. Download this tool here Arachni - Web Application Security Scanner Framework Final Word These are the best open source web application security testing tools. I tried my best to list all the tools available online. If a tool was not updated for many years I did not mention it here. Because if a tool is more than 1 years old it can createpatibility issues in the recent environment. If you are a developer you can also join the developersmunity of these tools and help these tools to grow. By helping these tools you will also increase your knowledge and expertise. If you want to start penetration testing I will rmend using Linux distributions which have been created for penetration testing. These environments are backtrack gnacktrack backbox and blackbuntu. All these toolse with various free and opensource tools for website penetration testing. So you can go with those environments. i hope this helps .